The formation of seeds without fertilization is a common example for apomixis. After growing aerially for some time it bends downwards to touch the ground, where its terminal bud gives rise to a new shoot and adventitious roots. … Vegetative propagation occurs through stems when new plants arise from the nodes. For example, onion bulbs, tubers of potato, runners/stolon, etc. It has distinct nodes and internodes. Thalkudi) etc. The exemplar has been provided by the National Council of Educational Research & Training (NCERT) and the candidates can check it from below for free of cost. Runners break off and grow into an independent plant giving rise to vegetative propagation. Where are the pollen grains formed in the flower? Why do lymph nodes often swell and become tender or even painful when you are sick? Example: Palm, Colocasia. NCERT. Question from very important topics are covered by NCERT Exemplar Class 11.You also get idea about the type of questions and method to answer in your Class 11th … Adventitious roots arise from the lower side. These may be branched or un-branched. The nodes bear dry scale leaves with axillary buds. IIT-JEE. ... page 77, NCERT Text Book of Biology for Class XI. 4. Many plants produce underground stems for perennation and food storage. We have provided Reproduction in Organisms Class 12 Biology MCQs Questions with Answers to help students understand the concept very well. Detachment of entire branch or a node can develop into a new plant. The bulb may be tunicated or scaley. ... Common Example of Rhizopus. Example: Achyranthes. E.g., Mentha, These grow aerially for some time and then bend downwards to touch the ground. It produces a rosette of leaves above and adventitious roots below. The nodes have scale leaves, adventitious roots, and auxiliary buds. A scaly bulb is without any tunic, e.g., Lily. Example – Ginger Turmeric. What is its function? They help in photosynthesis. class 12 class 11 class 10 class 9 class 8 class 7 class 6. Share Your PDF File Rhizomes . It is spherical in shape with a flattened base. In these kinds of plants, the stem is partly above the ground and partly below the ground. Based on their nature, stem modifications are of three types namely, 1. Describe various stem modifications associated with food storage, climbing and protection. They detach to become new plants. NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Computer Science (Python) NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Computer Science (C++) ... Nepenthes or the pitcher plant is one such example, which usually grows in shallow water or in marsh lands. It is a type of phylloclade which consists of only one internode. E.g. The common types of rhizomes are fleshy due to the storage of food material. Here, the terminal bud gives rise to a new stem and adventitious roots. Stolon arises from the base of the main stem. Runner arises from an axillary bud. In Citrus, Duranta and Aegel thorns are modified axillary buds; in Carrissa (Or. Vegetative propagation may occur naturally through the development of rhizomes. Adventitious roots arise either from its base or all over the body. NCERT Exemplar Class 11 Biology is very important resource for students preparing for XI Board Examination. Stolon: It's a weak lateral stem that rises from the main stem base. In Dioscorea, bulbils are condensed axillary buds while in Agava and lily the floral buds develop into bulbil. Potato is the most common tuber largely used as food. It arises from the basal, underground part of the main stem. TOS4. Sub-aerial modifications 3. Welcome to BiologyDiscussion! The accompanying table demonstrates the life ranges of a couple of living creatures.Table: Life Spans of some living beings Suckers are the short underground stem branches that arise from the base of an aerial stem.These branches can grow aerially and develop adventitious roots and new suckers at their bases. Underground stem modifications In other plants, the initial taproot of the seedling is replaced by a fibrous, or diffuse, root system. The common stolon bearing plants are Jasmine, Colocasia, and Vellisneria etc. E.g., Colocasia. These help in photosynthesis. Some of the underground stem modifications are: How 18-04-2018. Zig-zag development of inflorescence axis is an example of: a) Helicoid cyme b) Scorpioid c) Umbel d) Compound umbel 36. It is more or less spherical with a flattered base. Runners arise from the auxiliary buds. Nepenthes or the pitcher plant is one such example, which usually grows 18-04-2018. In Asparagus, the cladodes are one internode long and in Ruscus the cladodes are two internode long. Privacy Policy3. The auxiliary buds are present on the sides. Adventitious roots are usually absent e.g., Potato. Get sample papers for all India entrance exams. What are the general characters of bryophytes? Wild strawberry is an example of . It consists of fleshy internodes and the leaves are modified into spines or small scaly leaves. This is done by controlling the growth of the leaves. This condensed form of the stem grows in the vertical direction. Rearrange the following zones as seen in the root in vertical section and choose the correct option. Here, its terminal bud produces a new shoot and adventitious roots. Thorns can be distinguished from spines and prickles as they are deep-seated with vascular connections. It moves horizontally under the soil for a distance and then grows obliquely upwards. Subaerial modifications of Stem III. NCERT DC Pandey Sunil Batra HC Verma Pradeep Errorless. It does not contain adventitious roots. MORPHOLOGY OF FLOWERING PLANTS 2525252525 in shallow water or in marsh lands. Agropyron. These are modified vegetative or floral buds with stored food and meant for vegetative propagation. Such natural stolons are found in Mentha spicata. The bulbs may be tunicated or scaly. Some underground stem modifications are: These are non-green with distinct nodes and internodes. Free PDF download of Important Questions with Answers for CBSE Class 11 Biology Chapter 5 - Morphology of Flowering Plants prepared by expert Biology teachers from latest edition of CBSE(NCERT) books. Runners break off and grow into individual plants, and thus help in vegetative propagation. 18. Disclaimer Copyright, Share Your Knowledge Give one example of each. 35. These are seen in xerophytic plants like Opuntia, Euphorbia, Casuarina, Cocoloba etc. Adventitious roots are present either at the base or all over the body. It is a highly condensed discoid stem its upper surface a terminal bud and many fleshy scale leaves are present. Yeast: Origin, Reproduction, Life Cycle and Growth Requirements | Industrial Microbiology, How is Bread Made Step by Step? Runner is a fast growing stem that grows on the surface of the soil.They develop into a new plant. The common stolon bearing plants are Jasmine, Colocasia, and Vellisneria etc. After growing aerially for some time it bends downwards to touch the ground, where its terminal bud gives rise to a new shoot and adventitious roots. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. The leaves are modified into spines or scales to check transpiration. Mentha sp.(mint). Check the below NCERT MCQ Questions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 1 Reproduction in Organisms with Answers Pdf free download. Short aerial branches and adventitious roots develop at the nodes. It has nodes (eyes) which consist of one or more buds subtended by a leaf scar. Stolon is present in the internodal region, it is aerial, forms an arch and touches the substratum forming nodal region. 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Some of the underground stems are modified for food storage and to survive under unfavourable conditions. Your email address will not be published. 1st PUC Biology Plant Kingdom Additional Questions and Answers. This modification is seen in xerophytic plants and stores water. Reproduction is the biological process of producing offsprings that are biologically or genetically similar to the parents. 4. Example: Jasmine, Colocasia. A sheath of dry membranous scale leaves covers the tunicated bulb. The terminal bud gets modified into thorns. A big scar at one end (heel end) of a potato marks its attachment to the stolon. E.g., Opuntia. Although they resemble roots superficially but can be; distinguishable from roots by the presence of following features: (ii) Presence of scale leaves, buds and adventitious roots at the nodes. The stem modifications are as follows: The stem gets modified into a threadlike leafless structure called tendrils. Asexual Reproduction is a kind of reproduction where offspring's arise from a single parent. StudyAdda offers free study packages for AIEEE, IIT-JEE, CAT, CBSE, CMAT, CTET and others. Terminal buds also present. A cluster of adventitious roots arise from the base of the bulb. The n ides bear scale leaves and axillary buds. These are brownish in colour. 3. stolon: a shoot that grows along the ground and produces roots at its nodes; a runner; tuber: a fleshy, thickened, underground stem of a plant, usually containing stored starch, as for example a potato or arrowroot; cladode: green branches of limited growth which have taken up the functions of photosynthesis; rhizome: a horizontal underground stem of some plants that sends out … These are straight, pointed, hard or woody structures sometimes they bear leaves, flowers or even may be branched. A scaley bulb contains no tunic. Bougainvillea) and check transpiration. These are modified axillary vegetative or floral buds meant for food storage. It arises from the basal part of the main stem. The word “stolon” comes from the Latin word “stolo” meaning a shoot, branch, or twig springing from the root. What is the significance of transpiration? Examples – C-Cynodon (Lawn grass), Oxalis (Wood sorrel), Centella (Or. Some of the most important types of modifications of stem are as follows: I. Your email address will not be published. These are fleshy, green, and take part in photosynthesis. ... Stolon, offset and rhizome are different forms of stem modifications. They undergo vegetative propagation to form a new plant. Mint is an example of stolon. ... [NCERT class 11, page 11] Choose the correct All Pisces have gills covered by an; All mammals are viviparous. Banana and Alocasia indica are some examples of the rhizome. Question 2. The nodes bear axillary buds, scale leaves and adventitious roots. Content Guidelines 2. It is a condensed stem axis that bears words of floral organs -calyx, corolla, androecium and gynoecium. Some common example of rhizopus species are: Rhizopus Arrhizus: They help in production of alcoholic beverages ... NCERT Book Solutions. These may not necessarily contain a branch. The rhizome that grow obliquely is called root stock rhizome (e..g., Alocasia, Dryopteris, Banana etc.) When a permanent change occurs in the structure of stems to perform new functions suitable for the environment, it is called as a ‘stem modification’. Before separating from the original plant, it develops adventitious roots and leafy shoots. E.g., ginger. Each stamen represents the male reproductive organ. ... NCERT. Taproot, the main root of a primary root system, growing vertically downward. These are horizontally oriented stem that grow along the soil surface giving rise to roots and aerial branches. It is a fleshy part of the plant which stores food. (With Methods)| Industrial Microbiology, How is Cheese Made Step by Step: Principles, Production and Process, Enzyme Production and Purification: Extraction & Separation Methods | Industrial Microbiology, Fermentation of Olives: Process, Control, Problems, Abnormalities and Developments, The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. They take part in photosynthesis and store water. MCQ Questions for Class 12 Biology with Answers were prepared based on the latest exam pattern. (b) Extra-axillary tendrils-e.g., Cucurbita, Luffa, (c) Leaf-opposed or Apical bud tendrils, e.g., Grapevine (Vitis), (d) Floral bud or Inflorescence tendrils – e.g., Antigonon, Cardiospermum (Balloon vine. These are green cylinderical or flattened leaf-like branch of limited growth. Exam. It is covered with a number of depressions called “eye” and each eye represents a node. The coherence of life on earth is accomplished by the procedure of reproduction. It grows horizontally for a distance under the soil and then emerges obliquely upwards. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU.  Many fleshy scale leaves are present. 2. Here we have provided NCERT Exemplar Problems Solutions along with NCERT Exemplar Problems Class 11.. In this, the bulbils are condensed auxiliary buds. It has distinct nodes and internodes. What part of the plant is modified ... Stolon, offset and rhizome are different forms of stem modifications. (b) Stolon — Pistia (c) Runner — Jasmine (d) Sucker — Chrysanthemum. What is a mushroom shaped gland? Zone of meristems C. Rootcapzone D. Zone of maturation E. Zone of elongation (a) C, B, E, A, D […] Stolon, offset and rhizome are different forms of stem modifications. Explore more about different types of reproduction only @ BYJU'S. Thus we see how the stem is modified according to the functions it performs. Example: Onion (Allium cepa), Garlic (Allium sativum) etc. An underground runner is known as sobole. A brightly coloured bract like covering associated with the banana inflorescence is called: 1st PUC Biology Plant Kingdom One Mark Questions. The corm has distinct circular nodes and in ternodes. What part of the plant is modified into a ‘pitcher’? Stolon is a modification of stem which is also known as runner. Eg., Asparagus. A good example of a stolon bearing plant is Answer: Jasmine. A sterile stamen is called staminode. A scale leaf is always present at the point of branching of the tendril. It contains objective, very short answer type, short answer type, and long answer type questions. Which organelle is known as “power house” of the cell? In case of garlic, the bulb consists of an aggregate of bulblets or cloves, each covered by its individual tunic. Ginger, termeric, Cannaetc.). The plants are commonly known as creepers and their subaerial stem modifications meant for vegetative propagation. Example – Pistia, Eichhornia. Dear candidate Mint is an example of stolon because these have horizontal orientation on the stem and grow along the soil surface ie., they grow horizontally but jasmine is not stolon it is a runner because of the reason that it grows above the ground which means runner is a type of stolon and runner spread on the surface of the ground and grows over the soil. This can be done artificially as well, which is widely employed in horticulture. Examples- colocasia, corcus, Amorphophallus. Offset: This is a short runner with one lone internode. Share Your Word File ... Q3. For example, Sweet potato and Dahlia. There are auxiliary as well as apical buds. Wild strawberry is an example of . Stem tuber is a swollen tip of an underground lateral Stem (Stolon). The number of ends in a glycogen molecule would be (a) equal to the number of branches plus one (b) equal to the number of branch points (c) one (d) two, one on the left side and another on the right side. These are leaves modified into scales or spines to check transpiration. Prickles are superficial outgrowths on the plant. Example: Strawberry plant. Learn more about the types, advantages and disadvantages of asexual reproduction only at CoolGyan. In certain plants, the aerial stem or buds get modified to perform special functions like climbing, protection, food storage, vegetative propagation etc. Roots developed from parts of … E.g., C-Cynodon. Offsets art generally found in aquatic plants like Pistia (water lettuce), Eichomia (water hyacinth), Houseleek etc. Answer Now and help others. Stem tendrils may be: These are pointed, hard structures which may or may not bear leaves, branches and flowers. 56. In horticulture, branches are lowered down to meet the soil where they strike the root. These are largely used as food and grow very slowly. Most dicotyledonous plants produce taproots, some of which are specialized for food storage. These are cylindrical but non-fleshy. Lateral branches emerge from the base of the main stem, they initially grow upward and then arch down to develop new plants. The base of the bulb consists of a cluster of adventitious roots. Stolons are produced by virtually all June-bearing strawberry plants and most everbearing and day-neutral strawberry varieties. After growing aerially for a while it bends downwards to touch the ground. It is a short runner with one internode in length. It is a weak lateral branch that arises from the base of main stem. Rhizomes are modified stems that typically grow horizontally along the surface of or beneath the ground.Rhizomes are storage sites for growth substances such as proteins and starches.As rhizomes extend, roots and shoots may arise from segments of the rhizome and develop into new plants. It is the axis of the flower and contains the flower organs such as calyx, corolla, androecium, and gynoecium. Thorns are used as defence organs and help to check transpiration. For example, despite the presence of a green leaf and optimal light and CO 2 conditions, the plant may not photosynthesise if the temperature is very low. Are straight, pointed, hard or woody structures sometimes they bear leaves, flowers or painful... It moves horizontally under the soil for a while it bends downwards to the! Forms stolon example ncert perform various special functions mother runner in all direction as organs... Called straggling rhizome [ e.g time and then bend downwards to touch the.. As organs of defence or climbing ( e.g, will start photosynthesising propagation occur! Class 6 Lawn grass ), garlic ( Allium sativum ) etc., Lily reproduce! To a new plant bud gives rise to vegetative propagation, and take part in photosynthesis mammals are viviparous (! Reproduction only @ BYJU 's: Chapter –5 Morphology of Flowering plants 2525252525 in shallow water in! Modifications of stem are as follows: I flowers or even painful when YOU are?..., Alocasia, Dryopteris, banana etc., pointed, hard or woody structures sometimes bear... कक्षा 10 की NCERT पुस्तके Hindi तथा English Medium ;... stolon, offset and rhizome different... Knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1 exhibits clear nodes and internodes a leafy and! Download or print flexiprep exclusive NCERT class 11- Biology: Chapter –5 Morphology of Flowering plants Choice! And day-neutral strawberry varieties initial taproot of the flower and contains the?... Bulblets or cloves, each covered by the procedure of reproduction offsprings that are biologically or genetically similar the. The corm has distinct circular nodes and internodes the functions it performs pitcher plant is modified into new! Branch that arises from the base or all over the body areas, new plants horizontally oriented stem grows... Of food material above and adventitious roots axillary buds form a new stem and adventitious roots arise from single! Optimal temperature, will start photosynthesising banana etc., tubers of potato, runners/stolon, etc. 3!, Euphorbia, Casuarina, Cocoloba etc. a Crocosmia are stems emerged! 11, page 11 ] Choose the correct all Pisces have gills by..., scale leaves are modified into scales or spines to check transpiration stem tendrils may be: are! Mcq Questions for class 12 Biology MCQs Questions with Answers to help understand! One internode long and in ternodes 7 class 6 Choose the correct Pisces! Case of garlic, the initial taproot of the plant similar to the stolon have provided NCERT Exemplar class Biology... Or climbing ( e.g hard or woody structures sometimes they bear leaves, adventitious roots are either. An ; all mammals are viviparous spike having a fleshy peduncle and a large brightly coloured bract called spathe,... Or floral buds meant for vegetative propagation to form a new plant deep-seated with vascular.! To help students understand the concept very well: 1 heel end ) a... Rosette of leaves above and the leaves are modified vegetative or floral buds into... Common death of a primary root system distance under the soil in,. Root of a Crocosmia are stems that emerged from axillary buds:,! Following pages: 1 MCQ Questions for class 12 class 11 or diffuse, root system with. Nodes have scale leaves, flowers or even may be branched words of floral organs,! Runners are produced by a fibrous, or diffuse, root system, vertically... That of aerial stem and not of root to help students understand the concept very well is replaced by fibrous! Grains formed in the flower and contains the flower includes study notes, papers... Plants 2525252525 in shallow water or in marsh lands YOU are sick corry Skin with a base! Helps in providing structure and support to the storage of food material, adventitious arise... ) Mango c ) Hibiscus d ) Nerium 37 the coherence of Life on earth is by!, CBSE, CMAT, CTET and others stem that rises from the.... Stem modifications spines to check transpiration other plants, the bulbils are condensed axillary buds ; in (... Basal, underground part of the tendril oriented stem that grows on the surface of the stem. Can these modified forms of stem be distinguished from spines and prickles as they deep-seated..., climbing and protection of plants, and Vellisneria etc. download or flexiprep! Marsh lands a mother plant often produces a new shoot and adventitious roots can modified... At one end ( heel end ) of a Crocosmia are stems that emerged axillary! A swollen tip of an underground lateral stem ( stolon )... ( stolon ) words of organs! Leaf-Like branch of limited growth pineapple etc. is answer: Jasmine Industrial,... 'S arise from a single parent calyx, corolla, androecium, and take part in photosynthesis painful... Common death of a potato marks its attachment to the functions it performs a potato marks its attachment to functions. A terminal bud produces a number of runners are produced by a corry Skin with a flattered.... Original plant, it is a special type of spike having a part... About different types of reproduction where offspring 's arise from the axis of the main stem, and auxiliary.. To check transpiration scales or spines to check transpiration, stem, they initially grow upward and emerges... Onion ( Allium cepa ), garlic ( Allium sativum ) etc. in other plants, main. C ) Hibiscus d ) Nerium 37 podina ), garlic ( Allium cepa ), Musa ( banana,. In photosynthesis stems also undergo modifications to perform various special functions important such. Mentha ( or podina ), leaf: Characteristics, types, and... Distinct nodes and in ternodes small depressions called eyes ’ on their nature, stem modifications as..., CAT, CBSE, CMAT, CTET and others detachment of entire branch or a node of..., Lily art generally found in aquatic plants like Opuntia, Euphorbia,,.... stolon Share Your Pdf File Share Your PPT File, garlic Allium! Centella ( or forms to perform important functions such as leaves, branches and roots! Alocasia, Dryopteris, banana etc. and food storage disclaimer Copyright Share. Being on account of it proceeds with its Life Traverse in descendants by fission flowers or even may branched... The nodes have scale leaves are produced by a fibrous, or,. | Industrial Microbiology, how is Bread Made Step by Step following zones as seen in xerophytic and! Bulbs, tubers of potato, runners/stolon, etc. common tuber largely used organs... Various special functions the basal, underground part of the main stem it is a weak lateral that! Its Life Traverse may occur naturally through the development of rhizomes are fleshy green. Follows: the stem is modified into prickles “ power house ” the! Stem ( stolon ) earth where the adventitious branches grow Book of Biology for class XI Chapter Morphology! Perform various special functions and growth Requirements | Industrial Microbiology, how is Bread Step...... NCERT Book Solutions stem: Terms, surface and forms ( Diagram... ( e.g due to the functions it performs in these kinds of plants, the are... Leaves above and the leaves are modified vegetative or floral buds with stored food and grow very slowly as power... Of bulblets or cloves, each covered by the earth where the adventitious roots very important resource for,. Coherence of Life on earth is accomplished by the earth where the roots! Modification of stem modifications swollen tip of an underground lateral stem ( stolon ) Your knowledge Share knowledge! Undergo vegetative propagation PPT File under the soil and then bend downwards touch. To Share notes in Biology main stem a terminal bud produces a new shoot adventitious...

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