BSI, Modules supported by a primary structural frame, Approved Document B (Fire safety, Volume 2 – Buildings other than Dwellings), 2019 Edition. Typically, modular dwellings are built to local, state or council code, resulting in dwellings from a given manufacturing facility having differing construction standards depending on the final destination of the modules. The stair modules rely for their stability on a base and top, which leads to use of a false landing. Modern roofs may comprise tiles supported on roof sheeting or structural liner trays. Flat roofs can also be constructed with a variety of weatherproof finishes. … Walls of modules comprise C sections of 75 to 150 mm depth. In this blog, we’ll answer questions about modular construction methods, types of modular construction, modular construction materials, and much more. The close involvement of the client in assessing the business-related benefits provided by the method of construction. The process and design method of modular construction … For corner supported modules, a standard overall floor and ceiling depth of 600mm may be used. Ministry of Housing, Communities & Local Government, SCI P129 Building design using cold formed steel sections: Fire protection, SCI P299 Mini-Piles and Composite Ground Floors for Housing, SCI P302 Modular Construction using Light Steel Framing. An Architect’s Guide, SCI P284 Modular Construction in Building Extensions, SCI P367 Energy efficient housing using light steel framing, https://www.steelconstruction.info/index.php?title=Modular_construction&oldid=11885. transporting and assembling building elements for rapid site assembly to a greater degree of finish than in traditional piecemeal on-site construction For buildings of 6 to 10 storeys height, a vertical bracing system is often located around an access core, and assisted by horizontal bracing in the corridor floor between the modules. Roofing materials for modular buildings generally comprise tiles supported on battens, or roof sheeting on purlins. Don’t want to own your modular building for business purposes? Overall stability is provided by the modules themselves, or by an external structure. Modular units may be designed to be supported by a primary structure at a podium or platform level. Structural insulated panels: A structural insulated panel is otherwise called SIP. Shallow pitch roofs can be designed to be supported directly by the modular units and are easily dismantled. The modules are constructed in a similar way to that described for open-sided modules, but the loading applied to the side of the modules is significantly higher. An open ended module is a variant of a 4 sided module in which a rigid end frame is provided, usually consisting of welded or rigidly connected Rectangular Hollow Sections (RHS). Roofs are designed to support the weight of the roof covering, snow loads, services and tanks stored on the roof space, and occupancy loads from habitable use. Technical delivery conditions. The maximum height of a group of modules is dependent on the stability provided under wind action. Structural frame of a corner supported module – end view, Longitudinal edge beams of a corner supported module. When … A dimensional unit of 300mm may be adopted as standard for vertical and horizontal dimensions, reducing to 150mm as a second level for vertical dimensions. For this reason, fully open ended modules are not often used for buildings more than three storeys high. A steel external framework comprising walkways or balconies may be also designed to provide stability. These factories can build walls, rooms, or entire multistory buildings using the same materials, codes, and standards as conventionally built construction. Span horizontally over a damaged area by acting as a deep beam ,or. Floors of modules comprise C sections of 150 to 250 mm … nVolumetric modular systems – prefabrication is used to create complete 3D structural units, … SHS posts and bracing can be introduced in the walls to provide for overall stability. Design of steel structures. As such, it’s easy to understand why people perceive modular as only a temporary solution. This thesis will attempt to address the potential impact of high rise modular construction … Ultimately, modular prioritizes efficiency, durability, and quality control. Electrical sockets penetrate the plasterboard layer, so they should be carefully insulated using quilt at their rear. One […], From viral pandemics and wildfires to hurricanes and tornadoes, disaster can strike at any point. ‘Hybrid’ modular and panel building showing planar floors and walls attached to the modules, Load-bearing bathroom modules were used to support the floor cassettes at Lillie Road, Fulham(Image courtesy of Feilden Clegg Bradley). The load path is through the walls of the 3-D units, and so removal of this load path means that the walls should be designed to either: The latter means that the units should be tied both horizontally and vertically. Many types of lightweight cladding can be pre attached to the modules, but it is generally necessary to install a cover piece over the joints between the modules on site, to cater for geometrical tolerances and misalignments. It comes in several forms – the principal focus of this article is volumetric modular systems. Therefore, this mixed modular and panel form of construction is limited to buildings of 4 to 6 storey height. Module lengths depend on the overall building configuration, square footage requirements, and site layout, although they typically range from 30-72 feet long. Guidance on the design and detailing of the most common connection types is given in BS EN 1993-1-8. BSI, Road Vehicles (Construction and Use) Regulations, TSO, 1986 (amended 2018), BS EN 520:2004+A1:2009 Gypsum plasterboards. Modules can be disassembled in the future to leave the floor cassette supported by the beams. The supporting structure is designed conventionally as a steel framework with beams and columns that align with multiples of the module width, and provides open plan space at ground floor and below ground levels. A typical building form in which larger apartments are created using partially open sided units is shown right. The ground floor and below- ground car parking is a conventional composite structure. The module design is similar to that described for 4 sided modules. Leveraging assembly line production methods, each module is fabricated with standard building materials. Here are just a few of your options for customizing the appearance and operations of your modular building: Just like any building, the life expectancy of a modular building depends on whether it receives regular maintenance. Modular is one of the most complete types of prefab housing. Two generic systems of facade construction may be considered: Cavity barriers must also be incorporated into any cavity that occurs between the external cladding and the modular structure. In this case, the supporting columns are positioned at a multiple of the width of the modules (normally 2 or 3 modules). Insulation in the line of the roof pitch is used where a ‘warm roof’ is created. Modular structure construction uses an inside-out approach to manufacturing a building. These buildings provide an alternative option to meet the broad, long-term space needs of businesses, schools, healthcare facilities, and more. Typical dimensions for planning in modular construction are presented in the table. Double skin walls provide excellent acoustic insulation. The beams are designed to support the combined loads from the modules above (normally a maximum of 4 6 storeys). Boxes or modules are produced in a factory and shipped on a flat bed truck to the construction … Various cases are presented in the table for scheme design (based on wind loading in the Midlands of England). The modules are shown shaded and floor spans indicated. The second option would be steel and concrete (Type II B non-combustible). For these applications it has the following features: The following table describes the various structural elements used in walls and floors of modules. Each module is typically 12-14 feet wide to ensure it can be transported over-the-road to your building site. 4 sided modules can be designed with partially open sides by the introduction of corner and intermediate posts and by using a stiff continuous edge beam in the floor cassette. However, in most cases, the roof space is ‘cold’, and insulation is placed directly on the upper surface of the modular units. In this form of construction, modules are manufactured with four closed sides to create cellular type spaces designed to transfer the combined vertical load of the modules above and in-plane loads (due to wind action) through their longitudinal walls. The landings and half landings are supported by longitudinal walls with additional angles or SHS members to provide local strengthening, if necessary. Once all of the piles have been screwed in per plan, they are levelled off to laser precision. Both options have their unique benefits. End plates and Hollo-bolts to the SHS members may also be used. Floors. Stability of the modules is affected by their partially open sides; additional temporary bracing during lifting and installation may be necessary. Permanent modular buildings don’t have a limited lifespan and can last as long as traditional construction. All walls are insulated, and are usually boarded externally for weather protection. Cladding requirements, including alignment with external dimensions of cladding, Planning grid for internal fit out, such as kitchens, Transportation requirements, including access to the site, Building form, as influenced by its functionality, Modules exceeding 2.9m external width require 2 days notice to the police, Modules exceeding 3.5m width require a driver’s mate and 2 days police notice. Modular construction generally achieves these requirements by the use of fire resistant plasterboard conforming to BS EN 520, Type F. Alternative materials, such as cement particle board and gypsum fibre board may also be used in combination with plasterboard as the facing layer. However, conventional trussed rafter or purlin roofs are mostly used. The units are designed to be installed either as the construction proceeds or slid into place on the completed floor. Suitable for buildings with multiple repeated units, Size of units is limited by transport (3.6m x 8m is typical), Open sided units can be created (by changing the floor orientation), Modules are stacked with usually no independent structure, 4 to 10 storeys (6 is usually the optimum), Designing the depth of the floor of the module to be the same as the raised floor or. Balconies or other components can be attached to the corner or internal posts. A shallower parallel flange channel (PFC) section may be used to support the ceiling, but in all cases, the combined depth of the edge beams is greater than for 4 sided modules. A welded fin plate to which the edge beams are bolted is shown. These must resist the spread of smoke and flame and are required between all separate dwellings or fire compartments. Additional external insulation can be attached on site. Modular stairs may be designed as fully modular units and generally comprise landings and half landings with two flights of stairs. Where used, infill walls and partitions within the modules are non load bearing, except where walls connected to the columns provide in plane bracing. PMC solutions are affixed to permanent foundations, which are custom-installed to precisely meet the specifications of each modular building. Details of 4 sided modules showing recessed corners with additional angle sections. Difference Between Modular Building Types Modular Trailers. Corridor zone can be used to provide in-plane bracing in long buildings. The modules are arranged in a ‘spine’ through the building and the floors are attached to it. If the module configuration is repeated from other projects, then design time is much reduced. Fire safety is related to provision of adequate means of escape, to ensuring structural integrity, and controlling spread of fire across compartment boundaries. The inherent separation between modules provides an effective barrier to spread of fire. In all cases, the maximum height of the load is 4.95m for motorway bridges. Modules can be placed side by side to create larger open plan spaces, as required in hospitals and schools, etc. They are used as toilet/bathroom units, plant rooms or other serviced units and are supported directly on a floor or by a separate structure. Mineral wool is generally used. All modular buildings — temporary or permanent — can be expanded, remodeled, and updated whenever necessary. Traditional construction projects require that all work be completed on-site and from the ground up. Each module is lined internally with one or two layers of fire resistant plasterboard as follows: In residential construction, each dwelling usually forms a separate fire compartment. Integrated balconies within an open sided module. The responsibility for design and coordination usually lies with the building designer. Two methods of specification by the architect are most commonly used: It should be recognised that each manufacturer undertakes the construction of their modular units differently and they will be prepared to offer advice and provide drawings at the concept stage. Permanent Modular Construction. Its purpose is to help individuals like you to discover how […], Modular building construction has grown in popularity over the last 40 years and serves a wide variety of industries. Here are a few simple examples of how to calculate your modular building square footage based on the size and number of modules: As module construction is happening at the manufacturing facility, prep work is done at the building site. An example of this hybrid form of construction is shown. In modular construction, the procurement process involves the specialist manufacturers. Additional intermediate posts are usually square hollow sections (SHS), so that they can fit within the wall width. The three structural cases of side supported (4-sided modules), corner supported (open sided) and frame supported modules require different overall ceiling floor dimensions for planning purposes, as follows: In most cases, 450mm may be adopted as a standard for the floor-to-ceiling dimension, although many systems provide shallower depths. The screwpile method can be not only economical, but quite speedy in that a foundation for a modular … Some manufacturers combine different types of prefab building methods to open up the aesthetic possibilities. The depth of the podium type structure is 800 to 1000mm, and spans of 10 to 18m can be created below the podium, which are suitable for commercial applications and car parking. The benefits of modular construction, relative to more traditional methods, include: Modular construction is most commonly associated with cellular type buildings such as student residences or key worker accommodation. Floors and ceilings in modular construction are deeper than in more traditional construction. Course details Modular construction is a collection of practices and techniques for constructing buildings offsite. There are a variety of used modular buildings that are available for leasing. Fire stops must be provided around any penetrations through fire resisting walls. You’re in luck. Your Ultimate Guide. Design of joints. Therefore, it may be important to design a floor depth to a multiple of 75mm in order to avoid non standard coursing of bricks. Mineral wool may be required between the joists. Stability provided by cross-flats or diaphragm action of boarding. We recently released a podcast series called, “Built Modular”. Only intend to use it temporarily? But the advantages do not stop there, so we are going to list all the benefits of a modular construction: 1. In such cases, the role of the client’s architect will depend on the particular procurement process. Claddings for modular buildings can be self supporting vertically and only supported laterally by the units. This requires a high degree of accuracy in setting out service inlets on-site. Nevertheless, the cladding options and building height may dictate the foundation design. Partially open ended module used in Barling Court, London(Image courtesy of PCKO Architects), Long module with an integral corridor(Image courtesy of Kingspan Off Site and Modular UK). Modules exceeding 4.3m width require additional speed restrictions and may require police escort. Containers. It is typically used in residential buildings, particularly of terraced form, comprising modular ‘cores’ for stairs, and highly serviced areas. This form of construction is very suitable for mixed retail, commercial and residential developments, especially for residential units above commercial areas or car parking, etc, particularly in urban projects. Structural connections between modules are required for integrity and robustness but details vary depending on the form of the module and the particular application. ‘Modular construction’ is a term used to describe the use of factory-produced pre-engineered building units that are delivered to site and assembled as large volumetric components or as substantial elements of a building. Modular construction methods involve individual sections (called modules) that are constructed in a controlled, off-site manufacturing facility and assembled at a building site. This will enable the parties to work together from inception to completion. Further information on pile foundations is given in SCI P299. There are several ways of procuring modular buildings: A Design and Build contract is often used for modular construction. Modular hospital building during installation of, Modular units used in multi storey social housing project in London, Layout of apartments using partially open sided modules – alternate modules are shaded, Primary steel frame used in a fully open sided module, Typical podium structure in which seven storeys of, Balcony attachments to external structure (MoHo, Manchester), Typical wall and floor/ceiling dimensions, Tying forces in modular construction subject to loss of one module by, Typical service duct in a modular hotel building, Compartment floor at junction with external wall and compartment wall, Typical trench-fill foundation detail for masonry cladding, BS EN 10346:2015 Continuously hot-dip coated steel flat products. Modules can be manufactured with integral balconies and a range of cladding materials can be pre attached or installed on site. The walls and floor of these ‘pods’ are relatively thin (typically <100mm). In general, a compartment floor will also act as a separating floor for acoustic purposes, as the same measures will also achieve excellent acoustic insulation between rooms. The stability of the building generally relies on a separate bracing system in the form of X bracing in the separating walls. Depending on location and exposure to wind action, the height of buildings in fully modular construction is in the range of 6 to 10 storeys. Design of Residential Buildings, SCI P272 Modular Construction using Light Steel Framing. Open-sided modules use deeper floor joists or lattice joists of 250 to 400 mm depth. Cavity barriers are required within the cavity in the external wall between the module and the cladding at intersections with compartment walls. The gap between the walls is a variable, depending on the number and thickness of boards and size of the wall studs. Check out this video for an inside look at the modular manufacturing process: Businesses and organizations in a variety of industries choose modular construction for their projects. This is then used as a basis for tendering, either through a main contractor or directly to the modular specialists. Use of modules with integral corridors can improve the speed of construction by avoiding weather tightness problems during installation and finishing work. This results in a high-quality product that’s constructed in a safe, effective work environment. The edge beams may be connected to these posts by fin plates, which provide nominal bending resistance. The installation of electrical, plumbing and heating services in modular buildings can be largely carried out in the factory with final connections made on-site. Modules are placed internally within the braced steel frame, as shown in the MoHo project in Manchester (below right). The form of construction is similar to that of 4 sided modules, except for the use of additional posts, generally in the form of 70 x 70 to 100 x 100 SHS members. For example, Westchester Modular Homes builds a home’s rooms and … Additional corner posts in the form of square hollow sections are often used. The open top and base of the wall may be strengthened by a T, L or similar members to transfer out of plane loads to the landing. Placing the module in a recess in the floor of the main structure. In this course, you can learn about the different types of modular construction, understand their limitations and advantages, and learn how to manage the modular construction … The use of modular and other lightweight forms of building construction is increasing. The levelling of the foundations or ground beams is crucial to the subsequent installation and alignment of the modular units. In some cases, the roof can be designed to be detachable so that the building can be extended later. Two modules can be placed together to create wider spaces. Special lifting frames are used that allow the modules to be unhooked safely at height. Traditional, in which an architect provides the design co-ordination and the general contractor provides the construction co-ordination. On the other, it is a building erected in a more efficient and sustainable way compared to a traditional construction. Quality modular construction uses many different materials. These factories can build walls, rooms, or entire multistory buildings using … Various forms of other modular components have been used in major building projects. Permanent modular construction is a sustainable building method, which uses lean... Relocatable Buildings. What is Modular Construction? Because they’re already built, leased buildings can be installed and occupied more quickly. construction methods, streamlined construction process, reduced material waste and higher construction quality. There are two main structural materials used in any type of modular construction: While steel and concrete are stronger building materials, wood-framed options are often a less-expensive option. Additional steel angles may be introduced in the recessed corners of the modules for lifting and for improved stability. 'Design and Build’ process, in which the module manufacturer provides the detailed design and construction responsibilities. Access holes in the SHS allow bolts to be inserted through end plates to provide for vertical and horizontal attachments. The maximum width of opening is limited by the bending resistance and stiffness of the edge member in the floor cassette. The corner posts possess sufficient compression resistance for use in buildings at least up to 10 storeys. The most common modular construction materials include Temporary modular buildings are commonly located at construction sites or expanding businesses. Modules may be designed to provide fully open sides by transfer of loads through the longitudinal edge beams to the corner posts. For modular construction, it is appropriate to include whole life measures, such as potential re-use, or re-location which are not properly reflected in conventional measures of sustainability. Ready to move/modular (RTM) homes refer to modular homes that are constructed on our site and moved fully completed to customer sites on a truck. You’ve heard of modular construction, and you may have even considered using it for your business. However, many common modular building myths remain. Access to the service duct is generally only possible from circulation areas outside the modular unit. The services in each module are installed in the factory and terminate in the vertical duct. In this ‘hybrid’ or mixed form of construction, long modules may be stacked to form a load-bearing serviced core and floor cassettes span between the modules and load-bearing walls. The gap between the floor and ceiling is a variable depending on the number of boards and the joist size. And depending on budget and specifications, the interior and exterior of a modular building can be completely customized. Robustness is provided by the ties between the modules with a normally assumed minimum tying force equivalent to half the loaded weight of the module (minimum value of 30kN). Double line of modules with central corridor, Control systems for energy saving provided, Efficient operation and thermal insulation, Depends on public transport and adjacent public amenities (site specific), Raw materials delivered in bulk to factory, Insulation materials selected to suit client needs, Few ‘call backs’ due to quality of production, Safer site operations in modular construction, Safe and clean manufacture and construction, Key worker accommodation and sheltered housing, Public sector buildings, such as prisons and MoD buildings, Economy of scale through repetitive manufacture, Rapid installation on site (6-8 units per day), High level of quality control in factory production, Low selfweight leading to foundation savings, Suitable for projects with site constraints and where methods of working require more off-site manufacture, Limited disruption in the vicinity of the construction site, Useful in building renovation projects, such as roof top extensions, Adaptable for future extensions, and ability to be dismantled easily and moved if required. For example, homes built for final assembly in a hurricane-prone, earthquake or flooding area may include additional bracing to me… A separate bracing system may also be required, as the partially open-sided modules may not possess sufficient shear resistance in certain applications. The largest markets for modular construction are in student residences, military accommodation and hotels, but the health sector is significant as it requires highly complex services and medical installations that can be commissioned and tested off-site. As open sided modules are only stable on their own for one or two storeys, additional vertical and horizontal bracing is usually introduced. 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